The Key Elements of Great Properties

Advertising & Marketing

Things You Should Know About Real Estate Investment

When it comes to doing real estate investments, there are a lot of things that you need to know firsthand. The first thing you should bear in mind is that the entire real estate investment process is very challenging. Aside from that, you have to remember that investing in the real estate market consumes a lot your resources as well as your time. Another important aspect will be finding the ideal property for your investment. Furthermore, it also implies that you must keep this property of yours in good condition so as to entice potential buyers to take a look at it. It is also crucial to keep your own financial records so that you are able to keep track of the selling point of your own property. Regardless of those just mentioned, the job of a real estate investor is truly rewarding if he or she will do what it takes to make sure that his investments bring him more profit. Now, you can only achieve such an end result if you utilize effective real estate investment strategies. Fortunately for you, this article will be able to provide you some of these tips when investing in the real estate market.

One effective means you can make use of is building a trustworthy real estate network. Even though it is possible to be embarking on a real estate investment journey on your own, things will become much easier if you seek the help of the right individuals. You have to bear in mind, however, that the team of your choice must be composed of different individuals with different professions to help you in different areas. For example, to help out with the success of your real estate investment, it is important to get an accountant, a lawyer, an agent, an appraiser, and a mortgage broker. However, keep in mind that you just do not hire anyone. You have to be able to get a background check of each of these individuals if you want to only get the best team to work on the success of your real estate investment.

Another helpful tip when it comes to real estate investments is seeking some advice from people you know who are well familiar with the business. This guarantees you that you will not be making the same mistakes these people have made in doing real estate investments. You may even try getting some helpful real estate advice from some of your work colleagues and friends. You can even try asking some of your family members and friends, especially those that are familiar with the topic. Yet, if you want to only get the best recommendations and advice regarding real estate investments, a professional real estate investor should be the one that you approach.Learning The “Secrets” of Properties

Discovering The Truth About Properties

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Overwhelmed by the Complexity of Tips? This May Help

Auto & Motor

A General Overview of Finding the Right SEO Company

Those who are involved in any type of ecommerce business should recognize the need for the best online marketing solutions available to them. When you hire an online marketing company, the services they offer will involve more than the posting of online ads or the purchase of commercial air time. Through online marketing techniques, your main objective is to increase the number of potential clients and customers that visit your website. The best way to do this is to hire a local search engine optimization company.

SEO services work by improving your website in two distinct ways. SEO services will improve your website’s relevance and authority among other competing websites. In online marketing services, authority and relevance are very special terms.

When trying to get the largest number of people to visit your website as possible, the best way to go about is to get them to visit through the industry leading search engines. The search engines use the relevance and authority of your website to determine how your website will rank in its search engine search results. SEO companies have several proven methods that they use to improve these aspects of your website and ultimately improve your company’s page ranking.
How I Became An Expert on SEO

There are many ways that your website’s relevance to search engine searches can be improved. Usually, SEO companies begin by doing research to discover which keywords are most relevant to your specific industry. The next step is to update your website in terms of these keywords, adding the most relevant keywords to your website’s headers, content and metadata. The result will be a drastic improvement of the way that your website is indexed by the search engines.
Getting Creative With SEO Advice

Backlinking is another important aspect of the services that SEO companies provide. Backlinking is one of the best ways to increase your website’s authority. If you have highly authoritative websites linking back to your website, it actually improves your website’s authority in the eyes of the search engines. This means that, as the number of authoritative and highly relevant links increases, your site’s page rank will continue to increase.

SEO services are an extremely important part of online marketing. Those who are interested in finding out more about the best SEO companies in their local area should begin by searching the Internet for the best local SEO companies. By visiting the website of a local online marketing company, you will be able to read more about the SEO services and other marketing services they offer. To begin, all you have to do is perform a search engine search for the best Lubbock, TX SEO company.

The Key Elements of Great Treatments

Health Care & Medical

Treatment and Support for Vertigo and Other Dizziness Issues

Vertigo is a feeling of revolving or spinning. You feel like you are spinning or the inside of your head is spinning. It is a common medical condition seen by many people as a kind of dizziness that results in balance disorder. Vertigo is most common when a person goes up some height.

Ussually, vertigos will be classified by the parts they affect.There are two popular types; peripheral vertigo and central vertigo. Perpheral vertigo affects the functioning of the inner ear. Central vertigo is associated with the neurological system of the body. Heavy sweating, not being able to walk steady, nausea, and excessive vomiting are common symptoms of vertigo.

Problems in the brain or the inner ear can lead to vertigo. BPPV (Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo) is one of the most common causes of vertigo. It is a common cause of intense dizziness and is often triggered by certain changes in the position of your head.
Finding Parallels Between Remedies and Life

Infection of inflammation within the inner ear is also a common cause of vertigo. Such an infection may trigger vertigo and the person may feel nausea and dizziness. When the condition is not treated at the right time, it may cause loss of hearing. Also, Multiple Sclerosis, migraine, head trauma and neck injury, and decreased blood flow.
Why People Think Remedies Are A Good Idea

Vertigo is a disturbing condition which can accompany several medical conditions. It can be severe, slightly uncomfortable or even total disabling. When vertigo and other dizziness issues are not given due care and treatment, they may increase the risk factor for serious disorders such as tumors, stroke, and severe imbalance problems.

The seriousness of your symptoms and the cause of vertigo or any other dizziness issue are what will determine its treatment.

Vertigo is a treatable condition and can be treated using medicines. The drugs used in treating vertigo may be administered orally, through patches in the skin or intravenous injections.

Your doctor can prescribe pills such as antibiotics and antihistamines especially if it is caused by bacterial infection in the ear. But this treatment method may not be effective in all cases. Additionally, these drugs have some negative side-effects that are not quite favorable.
Epley manoeuvre procedure is a popular treatment method for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. The procedure involves performing 4 different head movements to move the fragments that lead to vertigo to a position where they no longer cause symptoms.

If your vertigo is caused by a migraine, then treating the migraine should relieve it.

A great natural remedy for treating vertigo is with ginger. It is pretty effective and can get rid of the illness within a few minutes of use. You can also use Ginko Biloba to treat vertigo. This herb stimulates blood flow in the brain where some balance disorders may occur. However, for chronic vertigo sufferers, this may take some time before it proves effective.

It is essential that you take some rest as soon as you start experiencing the symptoms of vertigo.

Kitchen Cabinet Re-paint Tips For New Look

Home Improvement

Tired of seeing the look of the kitchen monotonous? Maybe it’s time you are planning a change in the room that is identical to the filthy conditions and often cause odor.

But talk about change, some people usually jump to conclusions with the meaning of ‘renovation’ which are generally costly. In fact, the change can be realized only with a little creativity alone.
One of the changes in the kitchen that did not require a large fee is repainting the cabinet. In the market, the price of the paint to the cabinet varied ranging from Rp 30 thousand to Rp 60 thousand per kilogram.

For repainting the entire cabinet, at least you will need a paint 2kg depending on the size of the cabinet itself.

As a guide you in repainting the kitchen cabinet, following Rumah.com translate reviews of Decoist about the exact step by step.

1. Choose a color

Before deciding to paint, of course you will be faced with the selection of paint colors can make the kitchen more attractive visualization.

Some colors are worth trying include red tomatoes, green pine and mint green.

Red is able to look good when paired with a polished wall with gray. While green pine is a versatile color that can be combined with other colors.

For enthusiasts of pastel colors, mint green is most appropriate for your kitchen cabinet. Characteristics fresh and soft, can be mixed with various kitchen styles both retro and modern.

As a reference, combine this with a light purple color, and voila! Your kitchen will be transformed into the style of the 80s.

2. Remove cabinet doors

Do not think a job to repaint the cabinet is an easy thing. The biggest mistake most people namely paint without releasing the doors and other parts beforehand. They thought, with a brush to paint the smallest corner mini is a simple way.

Think again, how long does it take to paint the entire corner hinges and other parts of the smallest in the cabinet. The answer, surely long enough!
To be effective, release the entire door or drawer bulkhead at an appropriate step. So, you can paint the hard part is more freely on the floor, which was covered with old newspapers.

Do not forget to label each part of the door or drawer, to facilitate you when they wanted to put it back.

3. Clean!

Having removed all parts of the cabinet, the next step is to clean from dust and dirt. Wear stain cleaning fluid and a soft cloth or sponge to remove stubborn dirt.

4. Puree surface

The following steps should be applied if the condition of the cabinet you have problems, such as holes or scratches are deep enough. Use wood putty to smooth the surface.

5. sanded

Do not rush to quickly polish the kitchen cabinet with new colors. Because the work of this one should not be forgotten.

So that the painting process easier and the end result is perfect, you have to smooth the entire surface of the cabinet to be polished with sandpaper.

A bit of advice, use sandpaper is equipped with a layer of 100 grit. This is because the material is made of abrasive particles, constantly able to smooth the surface of the wood completely.

6. Paint

You arrived at the end of the process of painting the cabinet. Please note, if your kitchen cabinet previously painted with wood, then repainting must use the same type of paint. Likewise applies to cabinet painted with camphor.
The first step in painting is a good recommendation select a brush, and apply to all cabinet surfaces follow the direction of the grain. Do not paint the opposite direction because it will result in adverse effects.

After being painted, wait and let it dry for several hours. Then paint over again to get the flat and perfect.

Good luck!

What You Must Be Familiar With Orange County Law and Options

Home Improvement

In a divorce process involving minors, Oc custody of the children law is needed. Children are usually distracted by the contest between their parents over who and what form of custody is applied. When seeking custody over your young ones, first thing you have to establish is actually your custody case falls underneath the California courts thus Orange County family court jurisdiction. The key way of using this method is establishing how the child resides in California for half a year in the event the custody proceedings begin or resided there to the period immediately prior to the proceedings start. /p>

In the event the child is below 6 months then this state where the child has lived after birth can have jurisdiction over thee custody case. This era just isn’t affected by temporary absence. There are additional instances the location where the court can put jurisdiction but this is actually the common basis.

After establishing jurisdiction, you must understand that in relation to child custody, family courts in California are governed by the ??child’s best interest’ standard. This basically means the court has the discretion to give a custody or visitation plan that is certainly on the child’s best health, safety, and welfare and education standards. The court’s discretion is often a wide one and unless the judge abused the discretion it is almost always final so that it is challenging for a successful appeal. Thus it is upon all parents to get acting within the child’s well being to face the opportunity of an favorable ruling.

Another critical fact you need to find out about Orange County child custody laws is because they don’t come up with a preference when offering custody based on gender or race. Position can be not a foundation preference. Other conditions for example sexual orientation and religion are not also considered unless there’s proof which it places a child threatened by of injury like sexual abuse, crime or psychological abuse. If none of these is present then no consideration whatsoever is placed when determining custody and visitation plans. In case there is physical handicap, unless demonstrated compellingly that the parent facing physical handicap parent cannot take care of a child’s basic needs, re-decorating not only a factor.

In California law, parents will surely have either joint legal and physical custody or sole legal and physical custody. Joint custody are more common and used often by California laws and allow both dad and mom equal serious amounts of position in selection regarding the child’s welfare, health, education, co-curricular activities amongst other pursuits. One parent cannot arbitrarily decide without informing the opposite. The two parents are required to communicate and co-parent and neglecting one’s role may result in one losing the custody. Sometimes, the judge may grant a few of the decisions to at least one parent within the other parent is deemed unfit to share with you in those decisions. This is accomplished without necessarily granting parents sole custody.

In sole custody one parent contains the mandate to generate all the important decisions affecting a youngster without talking to with the other parent. Thus one parent only gets rights to check out and spend more time a child. Child alienation, no communication, domestic violence and sexual abuse, absconding duties are one of the grounds on which a dad or mom may lose custody with the child in Orange County custody law.

To learn more about family law  go to www.FoxFamilyLaw.com or give us a call at 877-369-5294 today. Julian represents people through all phases of divorce, child custody, and child support.

Disputing A Mortgage With A Qualified Written Request

Home Improvement

As mentioned in a previous article, it can be very difficult for homeowners facing foreclosure to raise certain claims in court when the bank holding their loan has failed and been taken over by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Case law and federal statute give the FDIC broad immunity against a number of claims that could be raised by borrowers in regards to loans held by the failed institution.

However, there are also a number of exemptions to the broad immunity the FDIC enjoys. Four of them are significant and worth examining here, as homeowners in foreclosure may be able to use them to bring claims against the FDIC or successor financial institutions.

The first is called fraud in the factum, and refers to any case when one party to a transaction reasonably relies on a misrepresentation by another party. The misrepresentation will be as to the character or essential terms of the contract. Examples include alteration of a document or forgery. The FDIC nor its successor institutions are immune to claims of fraud in the factum, so homeowners may be able to bring these issues into court.

Second, Truth in Lending rescission claims are still allowed despite the FDIC’s immunity protection. In fact, the Truth in Lending Act states that a borrower’s rescission rights continue regardless of assignment of the loan or to whom the loan is assigned. This means that, even if the lender fails and the note is taken over by the government, rescission may still be an option if the other requirements under the statute are met. FDIC receivership of the bank’s assets will not affect the claim.

Also, the FDIC does not have immunity protection from any transaction that is void. The federal statute granting FDIC immunity is intended to protect the government’s interests in assets is acquires from the failed banks. A void transaction, though, does not create an interest in an asset, and the immunity protection can not be extended to assets in which the FDIC has no valid interest. In cases such as fraud in the factum, the transaction may be declared void, for instance.

Finally, there is a rule called the FTC Holder Rule that was designed to protect credit consumers from holder-in-due-course immunity, such as the FDIC has been granted. For this rule to apply, though, an FTC Holder Notice must be included in the consumer credit contract. It will be included in many transactions relating to a sales transaction. This might be a home improvement contract or other similar agreement. If the notice is included in the contract, the FDIC’s immunity may not apply.

While the above defenses to broad FDIC immunity have survived most course, other claims have survived in a smaller number of cases. These include such issues as breach of contract, failure of consideration, challenges to the validity of a lien, homestead issues, unreasonable foreclosure sale, and state statutes regarding Unfair and Deceptive Acts and Practices. Homeowners should do their own legal research to determine if their claims may survive, or consult with a competent foreclosure attorney.

When homeowners find that they have become a mortgage customer of the government, falling into foreclosure can become extremely complicated. While the FDIC has taken some steps to assist borrowers in stopping foreclosure, the agency is granted broad immunity from many claims that may have been used to defend against the loss of the home in the first place. Thus, borrowers should educate themselves in regard to the issues surrounding the FDIC’s administration of mortgage loans and foreclosure.

Use The All Natural L-Glutamine For Sleep To Improve Your Overall Health And Life!

Home Improvement

Did you know that insomnia is a disorder that is created due to psychological imbalances or side effects from other health conditions that can be effectively resolved with the medicinal use of L-Glutamine for sleep enhancement? There are many factors that play a role in inhibiting individuals from gaining restful state of consciousness, such as stress, anxiety and depression, nutritional deficiencies, and other pathologic conditions throughout the body. For each action in your body there’s an equal and opposite reaction which can either be of positive or negative influence for your whole body health. This cleansing antioxidant is one of the twenty two amino acids of the body. The presence of this alternative health supplement is beneficial to every action and reaction in your body which is why maintaining proper amounts in your body crucial!

How L-Glutamine for sleep works in your body

L-Glutamine for sleep augmentation is an efficient solution to meet your health and anti-aging desires. When your body lacks sufficient amounts of oxygen and nutrients they function abnormally and interrupt normal body patterns. When you wake up constantly through anxiety and depression, or just an urge that won’t let your body settle, it is the sign of imbalances throughout your body. This powerful anti-oxidizing substance retrains your cells to do what they are supposed to, and helps to rewire your synapses and neurotransmitters which play a vital role in helping you stay in a restful state of being. When you begin using natural L-Glutamine for sleep purposes, you will also be enhancing cognitive awareness, so that even when you are awake you can get the most of your day!

Healthy reasons to use L-Glutamine for sleep

It’s a well-known fact that your brain needs a certain amount of time to rest and rejuvenate itself to maintain its many complex functions. The pituitary gland which is found in your brain is responsible for many chemical reactions such as stimulating certain hormones to affecting growth processes that occur at all times. When you take this natural alternative health supplement, you may not know it, but you are optimizing and tweaking electrical signals in your brain. L-Glutamine for sleep rejuvenation can influence the rest of your body which increases endurance and increases your chances of meeting all of your anti-aging goals. Balanced chemical signals and reactions throughout your body can be felt at your core as it improves the functioning of your heart’s vital functions.

Scientific observations and opinions regarding L-Glutamine for sleep

Researchers have observed ammonia levels in cells which actually -cloud- signals sent through the body. When your body is blinded by waste products, it cannot receive data needed for function. This amino acid converts to glutamic acid and glutamate to work with both the nervous system and skeletal system to produce desired effects. Natural L-Glutamine for sleep enhancement has been studied in many patients during different states of consciousness after consuming this vital amino acid. They have recorded the optimization of cerebral functions that control the rest of the body while under the influence of this naturally occurring substance. This is a non-toxic alternative to inducing states of consciousness that prevent insomnia from occurring.

Our tips on getting the most from L-Glutamine for sleep

When you want the very best for your body and all of its natural functions that support whole body well-being, you can also reach your anti-aging desires that reverse the effects of aging throughout your body! This powerful nutrient stabilizes chemical and electrical actions in your body to improve cellular health. This ingredient also acts a protective sheath around your nerves and cells to improve conductivity of signals throughout your body. When this key amino acid is consumed in variation with other natural vitamins, minerals, and ingredients, you can expect only the strongest healing experience as these natural ingredients work synergistically with each other to provide total body health.

Maximilian Rudolf has been an advocate and user of natural health supplements for over 10 years. He has a passion to communicate and share the results of his findings about natural health products such as Total Balance. He wants to help people to make great decisions that invigorate their health or even improve conditions they may never have thought possible.

Please visit natural-alternative-health-supplements for a real experience about health.

Learn about my breakthrough discovery that supports your digestive system and anti-aging needs.

Energy Saving Tips for Air Conditioners and Fans

Home Improvement

Having a window air conditioner, or even a good fan, can make even the hottest day more comfortable, but if you are not careful those units can also run up your utility bills. There are ways to reduce the energy consumption of both air conditioners and fans, and it is important to learn those tips and tricks before the hot summer months arrive.

The choice of air conditioner can make a big difference in the utility bills you have to pay. Choosing a model based on its energy efficiency as well as its purchase price can save you a lot of money in the long run. It is often better to spend a little more up front on an energy efficient model  you can more than make up the difference in the energy you will save.

Look for an air conditioner with variable fan speeds. That flexibility allows you to choose the amount of cooling you need  reducing energy usage and saving you money. Variable-speed air conditioners also run more quietly, so you will not be disturbed by the whir of the fan.

Try to install the window unit in as central a location as possible. If you can, choose the window that is closest to the center of the room. This will allow the air to flow more freely and cool the entire room or group of rooms more efficiently. Choosing an area out of direct sunlight will also help the air conditioner run more efficiently and use less energy. Be sure to seal up any gaps between the side and top of the unit and the window. This will reduce energy leakage and keep that cool air where it belongs  in your home.

Once that unit is in place, consider adding a simple timer to cool the room only when needed. Set the timer to turn the air conditioner off when you leave home in the morning and back on just before you get back in the evening.

Be sure to close the fresh air vent whenever the air conditioner is running. The fresh air vent allows air to flow in from outside, which is great when the unit is turned off. If you leave it on, however, you are literally paying to cool the outside world.

You can reduce your cooling costs further by using fans in conjunction with your window air conditioners. A fan can circulate the cool air and allow you to set the air conditioner at a higher temperature. Oscillating fans are particularly good at moving air around the home.

Ceiling fans are also great  either in addition to the air conditioner or as a replacement. Set the ceiling fan to bring the air down into the room  you will likely notice a change in comfort level right away. When the hot summer months are over, setting the ceiling fan to move air toward the ceiling can reduce your heating costs and keep the house more comfortable.

Consider adding a whole house fan for even more comfort and lower energy costs. A whole house fan is designed to be mounted in the attic, and it ventilates the entire home at once. You will need to open a few windows before turning the whole house fan on, but once it is going it can really make a difference. You may even be able to turn your air conditioner off until the temperature gets extremely high.

Using these tips can let you keep your home comfortable and cool all summer long and let you save money at the same time. You can reduce your summer energy costs will still keeping your home  and your family  comfortable and cool all season long.

Arzberg Plates and Glasses

Home Improvement

Serve up your tea in this beautiful and stylish teapot. To keep it warm, pair it up with the matching warmer with tealight. Great for entertaining. TRIC, the award winning design from Micheal Sieger embodies, practicality, style and function. A classic and colorful collection that is fun to mix and match. From bold, energetic to soft subtle colors, or a little of both this line is perfect for any host. From oven to table to refrigerator, Tric’s multi-functional pieces makes entertaining a breeze. The Arzberg company, since 1887 has stood for the highest quality in materials and design.

TRIC from Arzberg is the lifestyle range for the kitchen and dining room. At the core of this range are outstanding functionality and a simple, clean design by Michael Sieger from Sieger Design, who has been awarded numerous prizes. TRIC’s irresistible design and colour give it its stylish feel. Collectors who are inspired to look for one of these four designs should be aware that a great deal of copying has taken place over the years, notably by Japanese and Chinese manufacturers.

For years, Pier One has offered a range of coupe-shaped white porcelain that can easily be mistaken for either “Urbino” or “Form 2000”. Both KPM’s and Arzberg’s porcelains are marked on the bottom of each piece; knock-offs are usually unmarked. The impeccable feel and finish of German originals is not found in copies, which generally have some roughness, waviness, or glaze runs. Arzberg White Tric, and fashion forward collection that is fun to mix and match.

A great option whether you prefer bold & bright or soft & subtle, use TRIC to create your individual design statement. Start with white, add a color, mix in a pattern and transform your table for every meal. The multi-functional pieces move from oven to table to refrigerator. They are safe for microwave, oven, and the dishwasher safe. Please purchase on online http://www.etabletop.com

Backyard Playground Safety – Part 2 Selecting The Best Protective Playground Surface

Home Improvement

The protective playground surface is the most frequently overlooked component of home playground safety. While approximately 80% of public playgrounds have some type of shock-absorbing protective surfacing under playground equipment, only 9% of home backyard playgrounds do, according to a 2001 playground injury study performed by the U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC). The study found that, of the approximately 50,000 injuries per year associated with home backyard playground equipment, 69% of the injuries were a result of falls to a non-protective surface below the equipment.

Perhaps the most familiar backyard playground surface options are grass and dirt, but neither surface adequately protects children against serious injury due to falls, even falls that occur from 30 inches or less above the ground. Fractures of the arms and hands, and cuts and bruises of the head and face are the most often reported injuries that result from a child falling from playground equipment to a non-protective playground surface such as grass or dirt, as reported by the CPSC.

The good news is that a variety of protective surfaces exist that can fulfill a homeowner’s need for playground safety. Not surprisingly, playground surface options range in cost from reasonable to pricey, and each option has its own list advantages and disadvantages. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of each type of playground surface material, as presented in this article, should provide you with enough information to choose the most appropriate playground surface for your backyard playground.

The first and most vital piece of information to know before selecting a material to use for your protective playground surface is the critical height of the playground equipment. Critical height refers to the “maximum fall height from which a life-threatening head injury would not be expected to occur.” The critical height of your playground equipment equals the height (in feet) of the uppermost portion of your backyard playground equipment that is accessible to children. The protective playground surface you decide on for your backyard playground should be installed with a depth that is appropriate for your equipment’s critical height.

The following information details the critical height (in feet) for each of the loose-fill surface materials described in this article “when tested in an uncompressed state at depths of 6, 9, and 12 inches. The [information] also shows the critical height when a 9 inch depth of each material was tested in a compressed state.” For instance, if the critical height of your backyard playground equipment is 8 feet, then your options for protective loose-fill surface materials, according to the information below, would be 9 inches of compressed or uncompressed wood chips, 9 inches of uncompressed shredded bark mulch, 12 inches of uncompressed play sand, 12 inches of uncompressed pea gravel, or 6 inches of uncompressed recycled rubber mulch.

WOOD CHIPS*
– Six inch depth, uncompressed = 7 feet
– Nine inch depth, uncompressed = 10 feet
– Twelve inch depth, uncompressed = 11 feet
– Nine inch depth, compressed = 10 feet

*This product may also be referred to as Wood Mulch, but the term Wood Chips more accurately describes the product.

SHREDDED BARK MULCH
– Six inch depth, uncompressed = 6 feet
– Nine inch depth, uncompressed = 10 feet
– Twelve inch depth, uncompressed = 11 feet
– Nine inch depth, compressed = 7 feet

ENGINEERED WOOD FIBERS**
– Six inch depth, uncompressed = 6 feet
– Nine inch depth, uncompressed = 7 feet
– Twelve inch depth, uncompressed = >12 feet
– Nine inch depth, compressed = 6 feet

**This may also be referred to as Uniform Wood Chips, but, in the playground industry, the product is more commonly known as Engineered Wood Fibers.

FINE SAND
– Six inch depth, uncompressed = 5 feet
– Nine inch depth, uncompressed = 5 feet
– Twelve inch depth, uncompressed = 9 feet
– Nine inch depth, compressed = 5 feet

COURSE SAND
– Six inch depth, uncompressed = 5 feet
– Nine inch depth, uncompressed = 5 feet
– Twelve inch depth, uncompressed = 6 feet
– Nine inch depth, compressed = 4 feet

FINE GRAVEL
– Six inch depth, uncompressed = 6 feet
– Nine inch depth, uncompressed = 7 feet
– Twelve inch depth, uncompressed = 10 feet
– Nine inch depth, compressed = >6 feet

MEDIUM GRAVEL
– Six inch depth, uncompressed = 5 feet
– Nine inch depth, uncompressed = 5 feet
– Twelve inch depth, uncompressed = 6 feet
– Nine inch depth, compressed = 5 feet

SHREDDED TIRES***
– Six inch depth, uncompressed = 10-12 feet
– Nine inch depth, uncompressed = N/A
– Twelve inch depth, uncompressed = N/A
– Nine inch depth, compressed = N/A

***This data is from tests conducted by independent testing laboratories on a 6 inch depth of uncompressed shredded tire samples produced by four manufacturers. The test results reported critical heights which varied from 10 feet to greater than 12 feet. It is recommended that persons seeking to install shredded tires as a protective surface request test data from the supplier showing the critical heights of the material when it was tested in accordance with ASTM F1292.

Alternatives to loose-fill surface materials are rubber playground tiles, rubber mats, and poured-in-place playground surfaces. These choices are available from a number of manufacturers who may use a variety of shock-absorbing materials. The manufacturers should be able to provide you with test data that shows the critical height for the protective surfaces they offer.

Knowing some of the advantages and disadvantages of loose-fill surface materials will assist you in narrowing the choices to meet your particular needs. In general, loose-fill playground surface materials like wood chips, shredded bark mulch, pea gravel, play sand, and recycled rubber mulch are most often chosen for backyard playgrounds because they are inexpensive and readily available from a local garden center or home improvement warehouse. Recycled rubber mulch can also be found in a variety of colors and sizes through internet suppliers.

LOOSE-FILL MATERIALS – GENERAL GUIDELINES

A retaining barrier of some kind is necessary to keep the surface materials from becoming displaced as a result of active play or weather conditions. In addition, loose-fill materials should never be installed on top of hard surfaces like concrete or asphalt. Lastly, good drainage beneath the protective surface is crucial.

Overall Advantages:

– The initial cost of installing a loose-fill playground surface under your backyard playground equipment is generally low because the materials are easy to find and are relatively inexpensive.

Overall Disadvantages:

– Over time, loose-fill materials can become compressed, thus lowering their protective capabilities.
– Recommended depths become compromised when active play or windy conditions displace the loose-fill materials.
– Debris such as broken glass, nails, and other sharp objects which can cause injury can be easily hidden by loose-fill materials.
– Continuous maintenance is required to maintain proper depth and to remove debris. Maintenance can include raking, sifting, grading, and leveling.
– Periodic renewal or replacement of loose-fill materials is necessary, which can require more time and money than expected. The exception to this is recycled rubber mulches – see below for further details.

WOOD CHIPS AND SHREDDED BARK MULCH

Advantages:

– Wood chips and shredded bark mulch are not as abrasive as play sand.
– Animals are less likely to contaminate wood chips and shredded bark mulch.
– Wood chips and shredded bark mulch are attractive.

Disadvantages:

– The protective ability of wood chips and shredded bark mulch is reduced in rainy, humid, and freezing weather conditions.
– Over a period of time, wood chips and shredded bark mulch will become crushed, compacted, and will decompose.
– Wood chips and shredded bark mulch can grow fungus and mold when wet or moist.
– Insects are drawn to wood chips and shredded bark mulch.

PEA GRAVEL

Advantages:

– Pea gravel will not become crushed and decompose.
– Mold and fungus growth is not generally an issue.
– Animals and insects are less attracted to pea gravel.

Disadvantages:

– Pea gravel can be hard to walk on.
– The protective ability of pea gravel is reduced in rainy, humid, and freezing weather conditions.
– Pea gravel can be a falling hazard if displaced from the playground area to a nearby hard surface (sidewalk, decking, or patio, for example).

PLAY SAND

Advantages:

– Play sand will not become ground down and decompose.
– Mold and fungus growth is not generally a problem.

Disadvantages:

– Play sand can be difficult to walk on.
– The protective ability of play sand is reduced in rainy and humid weather conditions.
– Animals are attracted to sand unless it can be covered when not in use.
– Play sand adheres easily to shoes, clothing, and skin.
– Play sand can scratch floor surfaces if tracked inside.

RECYCLED RUBBER MULCH

Advantages:

– Recycled rubber mulch does not generally need to be replaced or renewed each year. Many manufacturers claim that rubber mulch can last approximately 50 years without requiring replacement. Check with recycled rubber mulch suppliers for any guarantees or warrantees that may be available.
– Rubber mulch tends to be cleaner and less likely than other loose-fill materials to produce dirty clothing, hands, and shoes during active play.
– Does not cause scrapes, scratches, or splinters from falls.
– Animals and insects are not attracted to rubber mulch.
– Mold and fungus growth is not an issue.

Disadvantages:

– Recycled rubber mulch may need to be raked periodically to maintain appropriate depths in high traffic areas.
– Colors on recycled rubber mulch may fade over time.

OTHER PROTECTIVE PLAYGROUND SURFACE OPTIONS

Rubber tiles, rubber mats, and poured-in-place surfaces are initially more expensive surface options than loose-fill materials, but they usually need little maintenance over time. To determine whether one of these options would be more cost effective than a loose-fill material, consider how many children might potentially use your backyard playground equipment and for how many years. Larger families, for example, may prefer to pay more at first for a surface that will be easier and much less expensive to maintain over many years of active use.

Advantages:

– No means of containment is usually necessary.
– Surfaces are wheelchair accessible and easy to walk on.
– Displacement of materials is not an issue, so the protective ability of these surfaces remains consistent even in high traffic areas.
– Surfaces require very little maintenance over time and are easy to clean.
– Debris such as broken glass and other sharp objects which can cause injury are not easily hidden in these surfaces.
– Animals and insects are not attracted to the surface materials.
– Mold and fungus growth is not an issue.

Disadvantages:

– The area under the surface usually requires special preparation. Contact the manufacturer or supplier for details.
– Surfaces may require professional installation.
– Rubber tiles may curl and cause tripping if not installed correctly.
– Some surfaces may be damaged by frost.

In summary, no protective playground surface of any type or depth can prevent all injuries. Nonetheless, installing a protective playground surface as the foundation for your backyard playground equipment is an important step in improving playground safety. The best playground surface for your needs is up to you, but whatever choice you make will be a significant step toward protecting the children who use your playground equipment from serious injuries due to falls to the surface.

Sources:

CPSC Document 323. “Home Playground Safety Tips.”
CPSC Document 324 “Outdoor Home Playground Safety Handbook.” 2005.
CPSC Document 1005. “Playground Surfacing Materials.”
CPSC Report. “Home Playground Equipment-Related Deaths and Injuries.” July 2001.
CPSC Report. “Special Study: Injuries and Deaths Associated with Children’s
Playground Equipment.” April 2001.